Introductory Chemistry

Written by: David W. Ball (Cleveland State University) and Jessie A. Key (Vancouver Island University)

This 1st Canadian version was adapted by Jessie A. Key from David Ball’s textbook Introductory Chemistry as part of the B.C. Open Textbook project. Key has made this textbook an even more valuable resource for students by adding numerous new sections, diagrams, diagrams, a glossary and appendices.

The textbook includes review questions, with answers to odd-numbered exercises, at the end of each chapter.

This 2014 open Introductory Chemistry textbook is offered in the following formats: EPUB, PDF, PDF (designed for printing), MOBI, XHTML, WXR, WXR (designed for printing) and ODT.

Table of Contents for Introductory Chemistry Textbook

Chapter 1. What is Chemistry
Introduction
Some Basic Definitions
Chemistry as a Science
Chapter 2. Measurements
Introduction to Measurements
Expressing Numbers
Significant Figures
Converting Units
Other Units: Temperature and Density
Expressing Units
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 3. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Introduction to Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Acids
Ions and Ionic Compounds
Masses of Atoms and Molecules
Molecules and Chemical Nomenclature
Atomic Theory
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 4. Chemical Reactions and Equations
Introduction to Chemical Reactions and Equations
The Chemical Equation
Types of Chemical Reactions: Single- and Double-Displacement Reactions
Ionic Equations: A Closer Look
Composition, Decomposition, and Combustion Reactions
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Neutralization Reactions
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 5. Stoichiometry and the Mole
Introduction to Stoichiometry and the Mole
Stoichiometry
The Mole
Mole-Mass and Mass-Mass Calculations
Limiting Reagents
The Mole in Chemical Reactions
Yields
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 6. Gases
Introduction to Gases
Pressure
Gas Laws
Other Gas Laws
The Ideal Gas Law and Some Applications
Gas Mixtures
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
Molecular Effusion and Diffusion
Real Gases
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 7. Energy and Chemistry
Introduction to Energy and Chemistry
Formation Reactions
Energy
Stoichiometry Calculations Using Enthalpy
Enthalpy and Chemical Reactions
Work and Heat
Hess’s Law
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 8. Electronic Structure
Introduction to Electronic Structure
Organization of Electrons in Atoms
Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table
Quantum Numbers for Electrons
Light
Periodic Trends
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 9. Chemical Bonds
Introduction to Chemical Bonds
Lewis Electron Dot Diagrams
Electron Transfer: Ionic Bonds
Covalent Bonds
Other Aspects of Covalent Bonds
Violations of the Octet Rule
Molecular Shapes and Polarity
Valence Bond Theory and Hybrid Orbitals
Molecular Orbitals
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 10. Solids and Liquids
Introduction to Solids and Liquids
Properties of Liquids
Solids
Phase Transitions: Melting, Boiling, and Subliming
Intermolecular Forces
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 11. Solutions
Introduction to Solutions
Colligative Properties of Solutions
Concentrations as Conversion Factors
Quantitative Units of Concentration
Colligative Properties of Ionic Solutes
Some Definitions
Dilutions and Concentrations
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 12. Acids and Bases
Introduction to Acids and Bases
Acid-Base Titrations
Strong and Weak Acids and Bases and Their Salts
Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
Arrhenius Acids and Bases
Autoionization of Water
Buffers
The pH Scale
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 13. Chemical Equilibrium
Introduction to Chemical Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium
The Equilibrium Constant
Shifting Equilibria: Le Chatelier’s Principle
Calculating Equilibrium Constant Values
Some Special Types of Equilibria
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 14. Oxidation and Reduction
Introduction to Oxidation and Reduction
Balancing Redox Reactions
End-of-Chapter Material
Electrolysis
Applications of Redox Reactions: Voltaic Cells
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Chapter 15. Nuclear Chemistry
Introduction to Nuclear Chemistry
Units of Radioactivity
Uses of Radioactive Isotopes
Half-Life
Radioactivity
Nuclear Energy
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 16. Organic Chemistry
Introduction to Organic Chemistry
Hydrocarbons
Branched Hydrocarbons
Alkyl Halides and Alcohols
Other Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups
Other Functional Groups
Polymers
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 17. Kinetics
Introduction to Kinetics
Factors that Affect the Rate of Reactions
Reaction Rates
Rate Laws
Concentration–Time Relationships: Integrated Rate Laws
Activation Energy and the Arrhenius Equation
Reaction Mechanisms
Catalysis
End-of-Chapter Material
Chapter 18. Chemical Thermodynamics
Introduction to Chemical Thermodynamics
Spontaneous Change
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Measuring Entropy and Entropy Changes
Gibbs Free Energy
Spontaneity: Free Energy and Temperature
Free Energy under Nonstandard Conditions
End-of-Chapter Material
About the Authors
Appendix: Periodic Table of the Elements
Appendix: Selected Acid Dissociation Constants at 25°C
Appendix: Solubility Constants for Compounds at 25°C
Appendix: Standard Thermodynamic Quantities for Chemical Substances at 25°C
Appendix: Standard Reduction Potentials by Value
Glossary

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