# A Textbook for High School Physics

It appears as if this work in progress may be a bit abandoned – the last update was in 2005. But, this attempt at modernizing a historic high school physics textbook still has plenty to offer students. It was part of a project to produce a set of free high school science textbooks. It was, in part, sponsored by the SchoolNet project. The authors identified this as a high school physics text that is also suitable for introductory level college students. Calculus is not a pre-requisite.

The high school physics text does include some notes and comments from the current editors. But, it does look like an excellent Physics textbook for self-study and a great source to supplement an assigned textbook.

1 Units
1.2 ‘TODO’ LIST
1.3 Introduction
1.4 Unit Systems
1.4.1 SI Units (Systeme International d’Unit ́es)
1.4.2 The Other Systems of Units
1.5 The Importance of Units
1.6 Choice of Units
1.7 How to Change Units — the “Multiply by 1” Technique
1.8.1 What is a ‘sanity test’?
1.9 Temperature
1.10 Scientific Notation, Significant Figures and Rounding
1.11 Conclusion
2 Waves and Wavelike Motion
2.1 What are waves?
2.1.1 Characteristics of Waves: Amplitude
2.1.2 Characteristics of Waves: Wavelength
2.1.3 Characteristics of Waves: Period
2.1.4 Characteristics of Waves: Frequency
2.1.5 Characteristics of Waves: Speed
2.2 Two Types of Waves
2.3 Properties of Waves
2.3.1 Properties of Waves: Reflection
2.3.2 Properties of Waves: Refraction
2.3.3 Properties of Waves: Interference
2.3.4 Properties of Waves: Standing Waves
2.3.5 Beats
2.3.6 Properties of Waves: Diffraction
2.3.7 Properties of Waves: Dispersion
2.4 Practical Applications of Waves: Sound Waves
2.4.1 Doppler Shift
2.4.2 Mach Cone
2.4.3 Ultra-Sound
2.5 Important Equations and Quantities
3 Geometrical Optics
3.1 Refraction re-looked
3.1.1 Apparent and Real Depth
3.1.2 Splitting of White Light
3.1.3 Total Internal Reflection
3.2 Lenses
3.2.1 Convex Lenses
3.2.2 Concave Lenses
3.2.3 Magnification
3.2.4 Compound Microscope
3.2.5 The Human Eye
3.3 Introduction
3.4 Reflection
3.4.1 Diffuse Reflection
3.4.2 Regular Reflection
3.4.3 Laws of Reflection
3.4.4 Lateral Inversion
3.5 Curved Mirrors
3.5.1 Concave Mirrors(Converging Mirrors)
3.5.2 Convex Mirrors
3.5.3 Refraction
3.5.4 Laws of Refraction
3.5.5 Total Internal Reflection
3.5.6 Mirage
3.6 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
3.7 Important Equations and Quantities
4 Vectors
4.2 ‘TODO’ LIST
4.3 Introduction
4.3.1 Mathematical Representation
4.3.2 Graphical Representation
4.4 Some Examples of Vectors
4.4.1 Displacement
4.4.2 Velocity
4.4.3 Acceleration
4.5 Mathematical Properties of Vectors
4.5.1 Addition of Vectors
4.5.2 Subtraction of Vectors
4.5.3 Scalar Multiplication
4.6 Techniques of Vector Addition
4.6.1 Graphical Techniques
4.6.2 Algebraic Addition and Subtraction of Vectors
4.7 Components of Vectors
4.7.1 Blockonan Incline
4.7.2 Vector Addition Using Components
4.8 Do I really need to learn about vectors? Are they really useful?
4.9 Summary of Important Quantities, Equations and Concepts
5 Forces
5.1 ‘TODO’ LIST
5.2 What is a force?
5.3 Force Diagrams
5.4 Equilibrium of Forces
5.5 Newton’s Laws of Motion
5.5.1 First Law
5.5.2 Second Law
5.5.3 Third Law
5.6 Examples of Forces Studied Later
5.6.1 Newtonian Gravity
5.6.2 Electromagnetic Forces
5.7 Summary of Important Quantities, Equations and Concepts
6 Rectilinear Motion
6.1 What is rectilinear motion?
6.2 Speed and Velocity
6.3 Graphs
6.3.1 Displacement-Time Graphs
6.3.2 Velocity-Time Graphs
6.3.3 Acceleration-Time Graphs
6.3.4 Worked Examples
6.4 Equations of Motion
6.5 Important Equations and Quantities
7 Momentum
7.1 What is Momentum?
7.2 The Momentum of a System
7.3 Change in Momentum
7.4 What properties does momentum have?
7.5 Impulse
7.6 Summary of Important Quantities, Equations and Concepts
8 Work and Energy
8.1 What are Work and Energy?
8.2 Work
8.3 Energy
8.3.1 Types of Energy
8.4 Mechanical Energy and Energy Conservation
8.5 Summary of Important Quantities, Equations and Concepts
Essay 1: Energy
Essay 2: Tiny, Violent Collisions
9 Collisions and Explosions

9.1 Types of Collisions
9.1.1 Elastic Collisions
9.1.2 Inelastic Collisions
9.2 Explosions
9.3 Explosions:Energy and Heat
9.4 Important Equations and Quantities
10 Newtonian Gravitation
10.1 Properties
10.2 Mass and Weight
10.2.1 Examples
10.3 Normal Forces
10.4 Comparative problems
10.4.1 Principles
10.5 Falling bodies
10.6 Terminal velocity
10.7 Drag force
10.8 Important Equations and Quantities
11 Pressure
11.1 Important Equations and Quantities
Essay 3: Pressure and Forces
12 Heat and Properties of Matter
12.1 Phases of matter
12.1.1 Density
12.2 Phases of matter
12.2.1 Solids, Liquids, Gasses
12.2.2 Pressure in Fluids
12.2.3 Change of Phase
12.3 Deformation of Solids
12.3.1 Strain, Stress
12.3.2 Elastic and plastic behavior
12.4 Ideal gasses
12.4.1 Equation of state
12.4.2 Kinetic theory of gasses
12.4.3 Pressure of a gas
12.4.4 Kinetic energy of molecules
12.5 Temperature
12.5.1 Thermal equilibrium
12.5.2 Temperature scales
12.5.3 Practical thermometers
12.5.4 Specific heat capacity
12.5.5 Specific latent heat
12.5.6 Internal energy
12.5.7 First law of thermodynamics
12.6 Important Equations and Quantities
13 Electrostatics
13.1 What is Electrostatics?
13.2 Charge
13.3 Electrostatic Force
13.3.1 Coulomb’s Law
13.4 Electric Fields
13.4.1 Test Charge
13.4.2 What do field maps look like?
13.4.3 Combined Charge Distributions
13.4.4 Parallel plates
13.4.5 What about the Strength of the Electric Field?
13.5 Electrical Potential
13.5.1 Work Done and Energy Transfer in a Field
13.5.2 Electrical Potential Difference
13.5.3 Millikan’s Oil-drop Experiment
13.6 Important Equations and Quantities
14 Electricity
14.1 Flow of Charge
14.2 Circuits
14.3 Voltage and current
14.4 Resistance
14.5 Voltage and current in a practical circuit
14.6 Direction of current flow in a circuit
14.7 How voltage, current, and resistance relate
14.8 Voltmeters, ammeters, andohmmeters
14.9 An analogy for Ohm’s Law
14.10 Power in electric circuits
14.11 Calculating electric power
14.12 Resistors
14.13 Nonlinear conduction
14.14 Circuit wiring
14.15 Polarity of voltage drops
14.16 What are ”series” and ”parallel” circuits?
14.17 Simple series circuits
14.18 Simple parallel circuits
14.19 Power calculations
14.20 Correct use of Ohm’s Law
14.21 Conductor size
14.22 Fuses
14.23 Important Equations and Quantities
15 Magnets and Electromagnetism
15.1 Electromagnetism
15.2 Magnetic units of measurement
15.3 Electromagnetic induction
15.4 AC
15.5 Measurements of AC magnitude
16 Electronics
16.1 capacitive and inductive circuits
16.1.1 A capacitor
16.1.2 An inductor
16.2 filters and signal tuning
16.3 active circuit elements, diode, LED and field effect transistor, operational amplifier
16.3.1 Diode
16.3.2 LED
16.3.3 Transistor
16.3.4 The transistor as a switch
16.4 principles of digital electronics logical gates, counting circuits
16.4.1 Electronic logic gates
16.5 Counting circuits
17 The Atom
17.1 Models of the Atom
17.2 Structure of the Atom
17.3 Isotopes
17.4 Energy quantization and electron configuration
17.5 Periodicity of ionization energy to support atom arrangement in Periodic Table
17.6 Successive ionisation energies to provide evidence for arrangement of electrons into
core and valence
17.7 Bohror bits
17.8 Heisenberg uncertainty Principle
17.9 Pauli exclusion principle
17.10 Ionization Energy
17.11 Electron configuration
17.12 Valency
18 Modern Physics
18.1 Introduction to the idea of a quantum
18.2 The wave-particle duality
18.3 Practical Applications of Waves: Electromagnetic Waves
19 Inside atomic nucleus
19.1 What the atom is made of
19.2 Nucleus
19.2.1 Proton
19.2.2 Neutron
19.2.3 Isotopes
19.3 Nuclear force
19.4 Binding energy and nuclear masses
19.4.1 Binding energy
19.4.2 Nuclear energy units
19.4.3 Mass defect
19.4.4 Nuclear masses
19.5.1 Discovery of radioactivity
19.5.2 Nuclearα, β, and γ rays
19.5.3 Danger of the ionizing radiation
19.5.4 Decay law
19.6 Nuclear reactions
19.7 Detectors
19.7.1 Geiger counter
19.7.2 Fluorescent screen
19.7.3 Photo-emulsion
19.7.4 Wilson’s chamber
19.7.5 Bubble chamber
19.7.6 Spark chamber
19.8 Nuclear energy
19.8.1 Nuclear reactors
19.8.2 Fusion energy
19.9 Elementary particles
19.9.1 β decay
19.9.2 Particle physics
19.9.3 Quarks and leptons
19.9.4 Forces of nature
19.10 Origin of the universe

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A Textbook for High School Physics